It’s going to be necessary, you can be sure of it. I had plans for fencing purchased commercially and installed on metal posts, but I may not need to do that. I was talking with someone yesterday, who has miles of Elk Fencing available for much cheaper. We’d need about a little over half a mile total (600 feet North and 800 feet South x 2), and I already have the posts, so this might be a good option. We’ll talk some more, but he may rent our planter and tractor to establish his orchard in the near future (or we can barter a trade for his fence?). It’s much quicker than we thought, and we don’t have an account set up, but it’s looking more and more like our planter will be rented out to others after we are finished planting the Thistle North Orchard. Someone warned me that this would happen. The whole thing takes off like wildfire pretty fast. Well, I’ll get out my hoses hehe.
I don’t think we’ll need to fence the ‘Home Acre’. Our dog is in there all the time, and the deer don’t come this close to the house or barnyard since we got him. At least we don’t see deer tracks past the electric field fence in the past year or two.
Interesting reading on Gum Disease and the helpful effects of good things (like anthocyanins, flavonoids and phenols found in Haskap).
ipopolysaccharide in gingival fibroblasts
A. Rajnochová Svobodováa
a Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Hn?votínská 3, Palacký University, 775 15 Olomouc, Czech Republic
b Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, I.P. Pavlova 6, University Hospital, 775 20 Olomouc, Czech Republic
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.03.024, How to Cite or Link Using DOI
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The most common oral diseases have a microbial aetiology. Pathogenic bacteria liberate a number of irritating agents including a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that activates pro-inflammatory cytokines promoting increased activity of polymorphonucleocytes (PMN). Release of PMN-derived free radicals into an infected gingival area affects gums, periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone. Berries of Lonicera caerulea L. (blue honeysuckle) are rich in phenolics, particularly phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins that have multiple biological activities in vitro and in vivo such as antiadherence, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Studies have shown that polyphenols suppress a number of LPS-induced signals and thus could be effective against gingivitis. Here we assessed effects of the polyphenolic fraction of L. caerulea fruits (PFLC; containing 77% anthocyanins) on LPS-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in human gingival fibroblasts. Application of PFLC (10–50 ?g/ml) reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion as well as lipid peroxidation in LPS-treated cells. PFLC treatment also inhibited LPS-induced up-regulation of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and it suppressed expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The effects are presumably linked to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and suggest its use in attenuating the inflammatory process, including periodontal disease.