I was doing some more reading on Haskap history, etc. This article is scientific and I’m adding my own notes, defining things as I go. I love stuff like this, being of the opinion that if you use a word 3 times, it becomes part of you. Now, how will you use ‘tetraploid’, ‘glaucous-green’, and ‘neia-blue’? Challenging, no?
My own 3/4 year old plant:
Crops from http://www.agroatlas.ru/cultural; (bolded words my own) /Lonicera_K_en.htm
Lonicera caerulea L. – Honeysuckle blue
Taxonomic position. (science of classification)
Family Capriofoliaceae Vant., genus Lonicera L.
Lonicera pyreniaca Pall., Caprifolium coeruleum Lam., Chamaecerasus coeruleum Delarbre, Xylosteum coeruleum Dum.-Cours.
Biology and morphology.
This is a polymorphic tetraploid (many forms having four times the haploid chromosomes–therefore twin flowered and twin-fruited) species. It is a fastigiate (erect parallel branches tapering to the top) bush that is 1.0-1.8 m tall. Crown is plainly orbicular (circular) with 1.5-2.5 m diameter at 7-9 years of age. Coloring and pubescence (covering of soft fine hairs) of shoots depends on type. The bark exfoliates (peels off outer layer) in longitudinal strips at 2-3 years of age. Root system is rachis-like (having a main shaft/axis), thick-growing. Leaves opposite, simple, smooth-edged, oval, length 3-5 cm, width 2-3 cm, pubescence (fine hairs) on both sides, ciliate, dark green above, glaucous-green (pale grey or bluish green) below. Many types have large discoid stipule (outgrowth of lower zone of young leaf), which do not fall with the leaves and instead remain dark, coriaceous (leather-like) and remain on branches for 1-2 years. Bisexual (both sexes) flowers in difloral inflorescence (two flowers on a stem), auxiliary on drooping or horizontal peduncule (stalk); bracts 5-6 cm in length (leaf-like structure), calyx (cup-like part of the flower) with short ciliate (fine hairy) denticles (toothlike projections), corolla (petals of a flower as a unit) pale yellow or greenish-white, tubuli funnel-shaped, 9-13 cm in length, 1-2 cm in diameter. Has a bottom ovary. Stamens are attached close to the edge of corolla, bilocular ovary, free, dense, enveloped by bractlets that have grown together. Compound fruit formed by mature bractlets cover two ovaries. The shape is orbicular, oval, cylindrical, surface smooth or bumpy in varying degrees. Fruit is neia-blue with a strong waxen bloom. Fruit length 12-40 mm, diameter 6-15 mm and weight 0.5-1.5 g. Fruit contains up to 20 seeds. Seeds are brown, ellipsoidal (cylindrically oval/egg shaped) with fine-mesh surface; length is 2 mm. Weight of 1000 seeds 0.9-1.2 g. Fruit ripens in June-July. The plant fructifies (becomes fruitful) at 3-4 years.
The cultivation of honeysuckle in Russia started in the first half of the 18th century as an ornamental plant. Within berry cultivation it is a relatively young species. It was introduced into cultivation in Nerchinsk (East Siberia) in 1884. It is widely distributed within amateur gardening. There are industrial plantations in Western Siberia, on Altai, Ural, Middle Volga and in northwest Russia only. Northern border of distribution coincides with the northern border of agriculture. There are 17 zoned types in Russia. The most popular are as follows: Ivushka, Golubika, Rfgtkm, Rassvet, Pavlovsk, Amfora, Fialka, Goluboe vereteno, Nimfa, Morena, Sinitchka, Zolushka, and Vas’uganskaja.
It is a typical mesophyte (needing medium moisture). It is shade-tolerant, slow-growing. It likes fresh and damp soil. Its growth conditions can vary greatly. It can survive a large range of soil acidity, from 3.9-7.7 (optimum 5.5-6.5). It is cold-resistant. Factors that limit its distribution in the south are warm winters, dryness of air and lack of soil moisture. For a good crop, it is necessary to plant 3-4 types together, as fruits are not formed when plants self-pollinate.
Fruits contain 5-10% sugars, 1.5-4.5% acids, 0.4-0.8% pectin, vitamins C, A, B1, B2, B9 and D. Berries are used fresh for jam and compote. It is also used for medicinal purposes. The plant has a high decorative quality.